Monitoring Adherence1

Methods for monitoring adherence can be divided into direct and indirect methods; each method has advantages and disadvantages without any one method being considered the gold standard1:

Direct Methods Indirect Methods
  • Direct observation
  • Measurement of drug level in the blood
  • Blood biomarker
  • Patient questionnaire
  • Patient self-report
  • Rate of prescription refill
  • Patient diaries
  • Pill counts
  • Assessment of clinical response

Reference: 1. Osterberg L, Blaschke T. Adherence to medication. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(5):487-497.